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CHAPTER 2

HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

 

Article 17

1. In the Russian Federation human and civil rights and freedoms shall be recognized and guaran­teed according to the universally recognized princi­ples and norms of international law and this Consti­tution.

2. Basic human rights and freedoms shall be in­alienable and shall be enjoyed by everyone from birth.

3. The exercise of human and civil rights and free­doms must not violate the rights and freedoms of other people.

 

Article 18

Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have direct force. They shall determine the meaning, con­tent and implementation of laws, the functioning of legislative and executive authority and of local self-government, and shall be guaranteed by law.

 

Article 19

1. All persons shall be equal before the law and the court.

2. The State guarantees the equality of human and civil rights and freedoms regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, material and official status, place of residence, attitude to religion, con­victions, membership of public associations, or of other circumstances. All forms of limitations of hu­man rights on social, racial, national, language or re­ligious grounds shall be prohibited.

3. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights and freedoms and equal opportunities to exercise them.

 

Article 20

1. Everyone shall have the right to life.

2. Capital punishment until its complete abolition may be established by federal law as an exclusive form of punishment for particularly grave crimes against life, and the accused shall be granted the right to have his case examined by a court with the participation of a jury.

 

Article 21

1. Human dignity shall be protected by the State. Nothing may serve as a basis for its derogation.

2. Nobody should be subjected to torture, vio­lence, or other severe or humiliating treatment or punishment. Nobody may be subjected to medical, scientific or other experiments without voluntary consent.

 

Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom and personal inviolability.

2. Arrest, detention and keeping in custody shall be permissible only under a court order. A person may not be detained for more than 48 hours without a court order.

 

Article 23

1. Everyone shall have the right to the inviolabili­ty of his (her) private life, personal and family pri­vacy, and protection of his (her) honour and good name.

2. Everyone shall have the right to privacy of corre­spondence, of telephone conversations and of postal, telegraph and other communications. This right may be limited only on the basis of a court order.

 

Article 24

1. Collecting, keeping, using and disseminating information about the private life of a person shall not be permitted without his (her) consent.

2. State government bodies and local self-govern­ment bodies and their officials shall be obliged to provide everyone with access to documents and ma­terials directly affecting his (her) rights and free­doms, unless otherwise envisaged by law.

 

Article 25

The home shall be inviolable. Nobody shall have the right to enter a dwelling place against the will of those residing therein, except in those cases provided for by federal laws or on the basis of a court order.

 

Article 26

1. Everyone shall have the right to determine and declare his (her) nationality. Nobody shall be forced to determine and declare his (her) nationality.

2. Everyone shall have the right to use his (her) native language and to a free choice of the language of communication, upbringing, education and cre­ative work.

 

Article 27

1. Everyone who is legally present on the territory of the Russian Federation shall have the right to travel freely and freely to choose the place of tempo­rary or permanent residence.

2. Everyone may freely leave the Russian Fede­ration. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right freely to return to the Russian Fede­ration.

 

Article 28

Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of con­science and religion, including the right to profess individually or collectively any religion or not to profess any religion, and freely to choose, possess and disseminate religious and other convictions and act in accordance with them.

 

Article 29

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of thought and speech.

2. Propaganda or agitation, which arouses social, racial, national or religious hatred and hostility shall be prohibited. Propaganda of social, racial, national, religious or linguistic supremacy shall also be prohibi­ted.

3. Nobody shall be forced to express his thoughts and convictions or to deny them.

4. Everyone shall have the right freely to seek, re­ceive, transmit, produce and disseminate informa­tion by any legal means. The list of types of informa­tion, which constitute State secrets, shall be deter­mined by federal law.

5. The freedom of the mass media shall be guaran­teed. Censorship shall be prohibited.

 

Article 30

1. Everyone shall have the right of association, in­cluding the right to establish trade unions for the protection of his(her) interests. The freedom of ac­tivity of public associations shall be guaranteed.

2. Nobody may be compelled to join any associa­tion or to stay there.

 

Article 31

Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to assemble peacefully, without weapons, hold rallies, mass meetings and demonstrations, marches and pickets.

 

Article 32

1. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in managing State affairs both directly and through their representatives.

2. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to elect and be elected to State government bodies and local self-government bodies, as well as to participate in referendums.

3. Citizens who are recognized as incapable by a court, and citizens who are kept in places of imprison­ment under a court sentence, shall not have the right to elect and be elected.

4. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall enjoy equal access to State service.

5. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in administering justice.

 

Article 33

Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to appeal in person and make individual and collective appeals to State bodies and local self-government bodies.

 

Article 34

1. Everyone shall have the right to use freely his (her) abilities and property for entrepreneurial and other economic activity not prohibited by law.

2. Economic activity aimed at monopolization and unfair competition shall not be permitted.

 

Article 35

1. The right of private property shall be protected by law.

2. Everyone shall have the right to have property and to possess, use and dispose of it both individually and jointly with other persons.

3. Nobody may be deprived of property except under a court order. Forced alienation of property for State requirements may take place only subject to prior and fair compensation.

4. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.

 

Article 36

1. Citizens and their associations shall have the right to possess land as private property.

2. Possession, utilisation and disposal of land and other natural resources shall be exercised by the owners freely provided that this is not detrimental to the environment and does not violate the rights and lawful interests of other people.

3. The conditions and procedure for the use of land shall be determined by federal law.

 

Article 37

1. Labour shall be free. Everyone shall have the right freely to use his (her) labour skills and to choose the type of activity and occupation.

2. Compulsory labour shall be forbidden.

3. Everyone shall have the right to work in condi­tions, which meet safety and hygiene requirements, and to receive remuneration for labour without any discrimination whatsoever and not below the mini­mum wage established by federal law, as well as the right of protection against unemployment.

4. The right of individual and collective labour disputes with the use of the methods for their resolu­tion, which are provided for by federal law, including the right to strike, shall be recognized.

5. Everyone shall have the right to rest. For those working under labour contracts the duration of work time, days of rest and public holidays and annual paid leave established by federal law shall be guaran­teed.

 

Article 38

1. Maternity, childhood and family shall be pro­tected by the State.

2. Care for children and their upbringing shall be the equal right and duty of parents.

3. Able-bodied children over 18 years of age must take care of disabled parents.

 

Article 39

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed social security for old age, in case of illness, disability and loss of the bread-winner, for the bringing up of children and in other cases specified by law.

2. State pensions and social benefits shall be es­tablished by law.

3. Voluntary social insurance, the creation of ad­ditional forms of social security and charity shall be encouraged.

 

 


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